Better known to the public as sapphire and ruby, the mineral species corundum is a widely distributed oxide of aluminum which ranks next to diamond in hardness and sometimes occurs so abundantly that it is mined for abrasive purposes. However, clear gemstone varieties are far less common than the course abrasive types, one of which “emery” is familiar to craftsmen as the coating on emery paper and abrasive wheels. In North America, much abrasive corundum has been mined from deposits in Canada and the Eastern part of the US, while clear gem quality material has been obtained in large quantity from Montana.
Some specimens exhibit the beautiful effect known as “asterism”, forming the ever popular star sapphire and star ruby.
By custom, the individual species name ruby is applied only to gem material of pure intense red, all other colors being sapphire. Continue reading Corundum Mineral
When we were hunter gatherers, if the geography of a place didn’t suit us we would move on to find one that did. Then, with the advent of agriculture and irrigation it wasn’t all beer and skittles and spare time. When we decided to stop moving and settle an area there were some major challenges to overcome. But overcome them we did…
Of the four species of humans that existed in the Paleolithic era, only one made it to the Neolithic: Homo sapiens sapiens. The transfer from hunter gatherers to agricultural societies is generally agreed to be sporadic and potentially undesirable in the early stages with some attempts being abandoned.
It was surprising to learn that the average height of the hunter gatherer population was 178cm for men and 168cm for women. Continue reading The Challenges of Staying Still
With respect to a Lone Electron universe, let’s consider…
ACCELERATION/DECELERATION: None. The same argument applies as with velocity.
ARROW OF TIME: If there is no time experienced by the Lone Electron, then there can be no arrow of time either. In short, the Lone Electron has no experience of a past, present, or future.
CHARGE: Yes, the electron has a charge of minus one or in other words a negative charge of one unit. However, in order for charge to be meaningful, it has to be acting with or against another charge of which there is none. Continue reading The State Of The World To The Lonely Electron
During the 1890’s a gentleman named Conrad Hubert founded a company called American Ever Ready and with the assistance of dry-cell batteries and the latest invention of the electric hand- torch lit up the city of New York.
Conrad Hubert was an immigrant from Russian who experimented with an invention created by Joshua Cohen called the electric flower-pot in which he acquired the rights and started to massed produced them so he could sell them to the public.
To his surprise the pubic did not want a light up flower-pot and was left with a large inventory that he could not sell, but even worse a very large debt. Continue reading How and When the Flashlight Came About – Flashlight History 101
Microscopes are among the most widely used instruments in labs.Medical microscopes have an important role in diagnostics as they come with powerful features that allow viewing of a vast range of pathogens indicative of several diseases. Leading manufacturers offer state-of-the-art models for physician and veterinarian clinics labs handling pathology, hematology, cytology, immunology, and microbiology and medical research.
Quality Features for Enhanced Performance
Features may vary depending on brand and model. Continue reading Medical Microscopes for Diagnostic Use
“Lonely Small Bandit” Confirms Hypothesis that Abelisaurid Fossils were Awaiting Discovery
The United States, Canada and possibly Mexico may be able to lay claim as being the home of Tyrannosaurus rex but the island of Madagascar can take ownership of another short-armed Cretaceous terror, with the announcement of the discovery of a new genus of Abelisaurid. Continue reading The First New Dinosaur Discovery in Madagascar for a Decade