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The Logic of Networks Started When? The Fascinating History of Graphs


In the 14th century, Nicole Oresme first represented variability. He graphed the velocity of motion by using geometrical figures as images of different variations in motions and their magnitudes. This use of geometrical figures to depict functional relations between the time and magnitude of motion marks a significant level of abstraction.

A paper written by Leonhard Euler on the Seven Bridges of Knigsberg and published in 1741 is regarded as the first description in the history of graph theory.

NASA’s Nanotubes


Have you seen those really light bike frames and tennis rackets? Do you know how they are made? They are created by using carbon fibers. Nanotubes are grown in a laboratory using carbon to create what is commonly known as carbon fibers. This technology is expensive, but also yields products that are incredibly durable and very light.

NASA is using this same technology to do nanofabrication for a number of instruments. Let’s take for example a telescope. The inside of the telescope is painted black to eliminate the light that is reflecting through the lens.

Understanding the Signs and Symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Types of Dementia


      Dementia, in French, means, crazy, madness or insane.

    Clues to dementia can be an inability to use the phonebook, a paranoid tendency that family members are spreading lies, opening cereal boxes from the bottom or bringing a reference manual to the neighborhood book club.

    If there are no sudden or big unexplained personality changes, we often think, Thats just what happens to the elderly,” but could it be something more?

    Dementia the Creeper

    People frequently accommodate their family members to avoid misunderstanding and confrontations.

Buy Ready-To-Use Disinfectants


Buy Ready-To-Use Disinfectants

Workers in medical laboratories and healthcare facilities need high quality disinfectants that offer protect against dangerous viruses such as those causing HIV, TB, and more. Ready-to-use disinfectants are now available as sprays and wipes which can destroy micro-organisms and stubborn bacterial spores on surfaces in susceptible environments such as operating rooms,dental surgeries,isolation rooms, patient care areas and laboratories.

Where to Use Clinical Disinfectants

All good cleaners have clear cut instructs on the label that tells you important facts such as how to apply the product to a surface,how long you need to leave it on the surface to be effective, if dilution is required,what kind of material compatibility it has and the type of pathogens it is effective against.

Disinfecting products should be used on surfaces that touch bare skin and surfaces that come in contact with uncovered infections.

Questions To Ask When Choosing a Lab Equipment Supplier


The healthcare industry has made rapid strides leading to an increased demand for reliable and efficient lab equipment. Physicians need to make quick decisions on treatment based on the results of laboratory tests and procedures. Only a reputable lab equipment supplier can offer quality medical lab equipment that provides accurate and timely results. Here are a few important questions that can help you choose the right supplier.

How long has the supplier been in business?

Look for industry experience when selecting a supplier.

Four Dimensions Of Reality


A One Dimensional Reality has no perception of time or space.

There is no there, only here.

There is no then, only now.

The Atomic Holon is one dimensional.

An electron that is here has no perception of a proton that is over there.

It has no perception of its rotation, spin or orbit.

No perspective of its length, breadth or height.

No awareness of being a part of an atom within an atomic universe.

The one version of an electron is its own universe.

It has no concept or realisation of a multiverse of atoms with infinite space and eternal time.

It is not conscious of its eternal journey around its atomic nucleus.

Its consciousness is just here & now

Now-here – Nowhere!

A Two Dimensional Reality has no perception of a changing existence.

Here & There are the same.

Now & Then are the same.

A two dimensional state never changes its reality.

It is always here and always now with no distinction between you & me or them & us.

The Cellular Holon is two dimensional.

There is just the cell that is here & now.

There is no concept of a multi-cellular organism.

There is only a perception of a two dimensional organism that is a cell.

From the perspective of the cell, it is all there is.

It has no perception of its co-operation with other cells and other cellular organisms.

Its consciousness, that experiences here & there in space and now & then in time, is the one reality of a two dimensional cell.

A Three Dimensional Reality has infinite space & eternal time.

The continuous reality of time & space allows reality to change and to be different, relative to its time & space.

From the perspective of a three dimensional consciousness, there is only reality with changing time & space.

The Organic Holon is three dimensional.

It has here, there & everywhere.

It has now, then & always.

A three dimensional reality is always everywhere.

Its reality changes and evolves as it moves in space-time.

It allows time & space to change reality.

A three dimensional consciousness sees space & time as universal and therefore sees reality as universal.

A universal reality appears to have only one version of reality.

A Four Dimensional Reality has multiple versions of reality.

It has a perspective of length, breadth, height & depth.

Depth is the spiritual dimension of awareness.

It is measured in holons of existence.

A perspective of cosmic proportions is required to perceive a four dimensional reality.

The Cosmic Holon is four dimensional.

I see the cosmic proportions of our universe when I perceive it from a galactic perspective rather than a planetary perspective that is trapped within a solar orbit.

It requires a three dimensional physical consciousness to allow the addition of a fourth dimension of spiritual awareness.

I cannot see a fourth dimension with my physical eyes.

I can only intuit it with my spiritual insight and my super-conscious imagination.

The Challenge of Biotech


The Challenge of Biotech

In 1990 I saw a film in the career department of my school that was simply called “Pharmaceutical”. It was a true piece of propaganda that I could not possible see through at the time. Men (and some women) in white lab coats drew chemical structures on the board and ‘designed’ the next new great drug. “Let’s just try putting a phenyl group here.” This is the biggest single driving quotation that I recall.

Can We Use Dinosaur Eggs to Make Vaccines for Humans?


Can We Use Dinosaur Eggs to Make Vaccines for Humans?

As the coordinator for think tank we work very hard to solve the world’s problems. Of course there are some problems that seem almost insurmountable. Take influenza for instance, or this latest strain of bird flu right now in Asia. Right now they don’t think that it is being spread very quickly from human to human, but all that can change.

Graphene – The Wonder Material


Graphene, recited as world’s strongest material, was discovered in 2004 by two scientists Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov of University of Manchester. The discovery was so important that both scientists won the noble prize for physics in 2010.

Graphene is not other-worldly material which can only be found in laboratories. Actually, Graphene is just a single-atom layer of popular element called graphite, which is the element used in pencils. If you slice graphite to just a single-atom layer, it is called graphene.

What Happens When the Sun’s Magnetic Poles Flip?


What Happens When the Sun's Magnetic Poles Flip?

      Every eleven years, the entire magnetic field that surrounds our sun reverses itself, going from positive at one pole to negative and vice-versa.

    The Sun, like the Earth, has its own magnetic field due to the conductive capabilities of the super-hot plasma that makes up most of the star’s mass.